Conservatism is a political and social philosophy that promotes traditions and institutions. Toryism supports a ‘hierarchal society’ that incorporates progressive alongside traditional policies. Canadian conservatism’s roots lie in the Tories, British Loyalists, who fled America after losing the American Revolution in 1783 to join their allies who had conquered New France. They became known as the Family Pact of Upper Canada and the Chateau Clique or British Party in Quebec. The ‘pact’ refers to the alliances between the Bourbon Kings of France, Spain and the British elites in North America which provided commerce, protections from slavery and military support. These ‘elites’ became the new aristocracy of Canada.
Together they held a monopoly over administrative, economic and judicial offices in Canada. The Family Compact was noted for its opposition to democracy and faded from politics but the clique did not.
Their resistance to the principle of responsible government was condemned as a petty corrupt clique even by Gov. Gen. Lord Durham in the mid-1800s. Later, the Conservatives combined pro-market liberalism and hierarchal Toryism to serve their own interests. Their policies were marked with ‘Noblesse Oblige’ — that nobles with status, wealth, power and prestige should fulfil leadership roles.
In 1844, John A. Macdonald, an alderman and attorney, was asked by Tory businessmen to run for legislature. He won while supplying voters with large supplies of alcohol. After years of colonial service, the Conservative Coalition united under him as first prime minister of Canada in 1867. This party sits on the right in the political spectrum. The merger of the Canadian Alliance/Reform Party and Progressive Conservatives now form the Conservative Party of Canada with current Prime Minister Stephen Harper.
This party is famous for the Acadian Expulsion 1755, French/Indian Colonization, the Pacific Scandal of 1873, the execution of Louis Riel in 1885 , Munsinger Affair Scandal of 1960s, Tunagate of 1985, passing the publicly opposed U.S. Free Trade Agreement and NAFTA, the Show Store Project 2007, Jullia Couillard Scandal 2007, In and Out Scandal 2007, ETS Scandal 2009, the F35 Jet Scandal 2012 and the Senate Scandal 2013.